CXC CSEC exam guide: Human and Social Biology - Section C: Heredity and Variation

CXC Human and Social Biology exam guide: Section C: HEREDITY AND VARIATION

CXC CSEC exam guide: Human and Social Biology




Specific Objectives

Students should be able to:


Explanatory notes


describe the process of mitosis

Definition of mitosis; movement of chromosomes during mitosis (names of stages not required); diagrams required.


explain the importance of mitosis;


production of identical daughter cells having the same number (diploid)
and !ype of chromosomes as the parent cell (clones); growth, repair and asexual reproduction


describe the process of meiosis

Definition of meiosis; movement and separation of homologous chromosomes and the subsequent separation of
chromatids (names of stages not required); diagrams required.




explain the importance of meiosis;

Importance of halving the chromosome number (haploid) in the formation of gametes; importance of meiosis in introducing variation into gametes.


5. explain why genetic variation is important to living organisms;

Examples of variation -
gender (sex),
blood type,
tongue roling,
mention antibiotic resistant bacteria.

6. distinguish between genetic variation and environmental variation;

Include difference between continuous and discontinuous variation; mutation, (Down's syndrome, albinism)


explain the inheritance of a single pair of characteristics (Monohybrid Inheritance);

(a) DNA/RNA, chromosomes, allele, dominant, recessive, homozygous, heterozygous, gene, genotype and phenotype.

(b) Monohybrid inheritance to include albinism, sickle cell anemia, tongue rolling; sex linkage (haemophilia, colour blindness)


8. describe the inheritance of sex in human beings;

Include the role of sex chromosomes.

9. explain the concept of genetic engineering;

Changing the traits of one organism by inserting genetic material from another organism

10. discuss the advantages and disadvanges of genetic engineering;

include recombinant DNA in the manufacture of insulin; its application in the production of food and medicine.

11. use tables charts and diagrams to represent data on heredity and variation.  

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RIYA's picture
RIYA (not verified)

IT was a good guide for me

RIYA's picture
janeen (not verified)
human and social biology

couldnt ask for anything better

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