CXC CSEC exam guide: Human and Social Biology - Section B: Life Processes: Unit 2: The Respiratory System



CXC Human and Social Biology exam guide: Life processes Unit 2


CXC CSEC exam guide: Human and Social Biology

SECTION B- LIFE PROCESSES

 

UNIT 2: The Respiratory System  

Specific Objectives

Students should be able to:

 

Explanatory notes

1

explain the importance of breathing in humans

 

Starch,
reducing and non-reducing sugars,
lipids,
proteins;
mention chemical and physical properties of carbohydrates,
lipids and proteins.

2

relate the structures of the respiratory tract to their functions;

 

Diagram of respiratory system.

 

3

describe the breathing mechanisms; * 

Emphasis on principles involved. Demonstrate using a model.

4

 

outline the factors affecting rate of breathing;

Exercise, smoking, anxiety, drugs, environmental factors, altitude, weight. (Link to Specific Objective D5)

 

5. explain the concept of vital capacity;         

Graphical representation required.

6. distinguish between gaseous exchange and breathing;  Inclusion of gaseous exchange in the alveoli; diagram of alveolus required.
7.

identify characteristics common to gaseous exchange surfaces;

 
8. differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic respiration; 

definition of aerobic and anaerobic respiration respirations;

the products of respiration;

description of industrial and domestic applications of anaerobic respiration;

oxygen debt;

worded equations to represent the processes of aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

9. explain the role of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the transfer of energy; 

Adenosine triphosphate as the energy currency of the cell.

10. explain the technique of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation;

Definition of malnutrition (over and under nutrition),
obesity,
anorexia and bulimia,
protein and energy malnutrition (kwashiorkor, marasmus).

11. explain the effects of cigarettes smoking; 

Effects of smoking as it relates to nicotine addiction,

damage to the lungs, carcinogenic properties and reduction in oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

Interpretation of data.

 

12.

use tables, graphs and charts to represent data on the respiratory system.

 


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