CXC CSEC exam guide: Human and Social Biology - Section B: Life Processes: Unit 6: Coordination and Control

CXC Human and Social Biology exam guide: Life processes Unit 6

CXC CSEC exam guide: Human and Social Biology



UNIT 6: Coordination and Control  

Specific Objectives

Students should be able to:


Explanatory notes


decribe the main divisions of the nervous system;

(a) Central nervous system - the brain; spinal cord.

(b) peripheral nervous system: spinal nerves and cranial nerves, and autonomic nervous system.



describe the functions of the parts of the brain;


Cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus, pitituary glands.



distinguish between a neurone and a nerve;

(a) Diagram of neurones required.

(b) Definitions

(c) Properties of neurones; irritability; conductivity; structures of neurones, cell-bodies, axons and dendrites.




explain the functions of motor and sensory neurones and spinal synapses;

(a) Functions and types of nerves: motor, sensory, mixed.

(b) Synapse and chemical transmitters.


5. describe the mechanisms of a reflex action;

structure of the spinal cord (diagram required);
the spinal reflex action (for example, knee jerk reflex);
cranial reflex action (for example, pupil reflex);
reaction to painful stimuli;
demonstration of knee jerk reflex.


6. explain the process by which voluntary actions occur;

Definition; transmission of nerve impulses;involvement of neurones in the brain, spinal cord and effector muscles.


distinguish between a voluntary and involuntary action;



8. explain the response of the sense organs to stimuli;

Names of the sense organs; stimuli to which they respond.

9. relate the internal structures of the eye to their functions;

Diagram of eye (internal view) required.

10. explain how images are formed in the eye;

Diagrams required.

11. explain accommodation in the eye;  
12. describe the causes of, and corrective measures for eye defects;

Long and short-sightedness (diagrams required)
astigmatism, include the diseases glaucoma and cataracts.

13. distinguish between endocrine (hormonal) and nervous control systems;  
14. identifY the sites of hormone production; Diagram required.
15. explain the roles of selected hormones in the human body;

Pitituary - anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH),
growth hormones;
Thyroid - thyroxine;

Pancreas - insulin, glucagon;
Adrenals - adrenaline;
Ovary - Oestrogen, progresterone;
Testes - testosterone.

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